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The court fool reveals
secrets behind world events
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The secrets behind money The secrets behind money:

The bankers hat

The magic of bankers The magic of bankers

Always growing debts

The cancer of bankers The cancer of bankers

sign a loan
If you just sign here, I will give you a balance of $ 1,000 and you will owe me $ 1,000 plus interest.

The banking system in short The banking system in short

exchanging mutual claims
With just a tiny little bit of money bankers can pay each other millions...

Secrets of money, interest and inflation Secrets of money, interest and inflation

Debit, credit, banco! Debit, credit, banco!

Canadas_National_Debt_1940_1987
Politicians give billions away to private bankers...

A tale of two monetary systems A tale of two monetary systems

falling banknotes

Private banks or a bank of the government Private banks or a bank of the government. A comparaison.

From state debt to state money From state debt to state money

Towards a sound economy Towards a sound economy

Bank crisis? Reform!

Bank crisis? Reform! Bank crisis? Reform!

Wall_Street_Bull

the Derivative Scam Banking explained:
the Derivative Scam



The secrets behind the euro The secrets behind the euro:

The madness of the euro

The madness of the euro The madness of the euro

heavy euro

Out of the euro, and then? Out of the euro, and then?

hungry euro

ESM, the new European dictator! ESM, the new European dictator!

YouTube: The new European dictator

ESM robs the Treasuries in 3'51'' ESM robs the Treasuries in 3'51''

Keep quiet! We build Europe!
Keep quiet! We build Europe!"

ESM, a coup d'état in 17 countries! ESM, a coup d'état in 17 countries!

Zeus rapes Europa

Zeus rapes Europa Zeus rapes Europa

Goldman Sachs captures Europe

How the Goldman Vampire Squid Just Captured Europe ESM: How the Goldman Vampire Squid Just Captured Europe

NATO rescues euro in Libya

NATO rescues euro in Libya NATO rescues euro in Libya

Obama and Sarkozy in Libya
Obama and Sarkozy in Libya

Hillary Clinton's emails about Libya Hillary Clinton's emails about Libya

Euromania

EUROMANIA by Peter Vlemmix EUROMANIA by Peter Vlemmix

Ascensao_e_queda_do_euro

Autores:
Rudo de Ruijter
Yannis Varoufakis
Costas Lapavitsas
James K. Galbraith
Gerard Dunénil
Michael Hudson
Ed Dolan
Jacques Nikonoff
Jean-Claude Paye
Eugénio Rosa
Jorge Figueiredo

The secrets behind democracies The secrets behind democracies:

Power to the people

The road to democracy The road to democracy

Chicken_parliament

The chicken-parliament The chicken-parliament


The bizarre Dutch referendum

The bizarre Dutch referendum The bizarre Dutch referendum

Rutte versus Erdogan 11 March 2017
Burada patron değil, Erdogan değilim !

Rutte versus Erdogan 11 March 2017 Dutch prime minister prevents Turkish ministers from attending a pro-Erdogan meeting


secrets behind the war in Iraq The secrets behind the war in Iraq:

dollar_bill

Cost, abuse and danger of the dollar Cost, abuse and danger of the dollar

Iraq_Memorial

Iraq Memorial Iraq Memorial


The secrets behind the war in Afghanistan The secrets behind the war in Afghanistan:

Pipelines_to_9_11 / WTC

Pipelines to 9/11 Pipelines to 9/11


The secrets behind the accusations against IranThe secrets behind the accusations against Iran:

Raid on the nuclear fuel market

Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market Raid on Nuclear Fuel Market

Wipe Israel from the map? Wipe Israel from the map?


Farewell to growthFarewell to growth:

outlook_population

World Energy and Population World Energy and Population

World_Energy_Imports_Exports

Turning-point of humanity Energy crisis:
Turning-point of humanity




Facts and lies about the climateFacts and lies about the climate:

Climate Conference Paris 2015

Climate Conference Paris 2015 Climate Conference Paris 2015

The clockwork of the Earth and Sun

The clockwork of the Earth and Sun 1: The clockwork of the Earth and Sun

The activity of the Sun

The activity of the Sun 2: The activity of the Sun

CO2: scare, claims and fraud...

CO2: scare, claims and fraud... 3: CO2: scare, claims and fraud...

Uncover secrets Uncover secrets:

Sleepwalking

Wake up citizens? Wake up citizens?


Exceptional offer Exceptional offer:

Ivan Boyadjhiev, Confused Perspectives, 40 x 50 cm

Ivan Boyadjhiev, Confused Perspectives, 40 x 50 cm Ivan Boyadjhiev
Confused Perspectives
40 x 50 cm
Click here...




HumorHumor:

Protest in Draguignan
There are alternatives to capitalism...

Protest in Draguignan Protest in Draguignan

Cartoons

More cartoons Click here fore many more original cartoons...


Treaties Treaties:


Treaty establishing the European Union (EU) Treaty establishing the European Union (EU)

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)

Amendment article 136 TFEU Amendment article 136 TFEU

First version of the ESM First version of the Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism (ESM)(not ratified)

ESM Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism (ESM)

TSCG Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the economic and monetary union (TSCG)

Vienna Convention 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969

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11 Septiembre 2001
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Rudo de Ruijter

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Christine, Corinne, Francisco, Evelyne, Françoise, Gaël, Peter, Ingrid, Ivan, Krister, Jorge, Marie Carmen, Ruurd, Sabine, Lisa, Sarah, Valérie & Anonymous...

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Facts and lies about the climate (1)

by Rudo de Ruijter,
Independent researcher,
With special thanks to climatologist Professor Patrick Tyson

Preliminary

These past years the United Nations have done a lot to create a world wide panic for CO2. However, more and more often we hear that CO2 cannot be the cause of global warming. What is false and what is true?

This article contains an overview of what makes our climate. It describes the known factors that cause climate changes and determine weather conditions. Roughly, we can distinguish two main factors:

  1. the changing distances between the Earth and the Sun and the changing angle of the Earth axis. They are the result of the trajectories of the planets around the Sun. They can be calculated with precision together with the resulting changes in Sun heat on Earth.

  2. the variations in the Sun's activity and the processes in the Earth' atmosphere. These changes are much less predictible. Among other processes I will describe vaporization and condensation. H2O, in its forms of vapour, droplets and ice cristals have 25 times more impact on global warming than CO2.

The CO2 story, and in particular the role played by the United Nations in promoting the scare for CO2, is covered in the third part:  CO2 scare, claims and fraud

Introduction

As far as our limited knowledge reaches now, the Earth is the only planet in the universe where life exists. This life probably started thanks to the amino acids that were set free during the striking of meteors, when the Earth was about a billion years old. And because the radiance of the Sun is increasing with time, in two billion years it will become that hot on Earth, that life will probably be over again. In the meantime, let's make the best of it. [1]

The last billion years were characterized by a number of Ice Ages. These were periods of tens to hundreds of million years, during which sheets of ice hundreds of meters thick covered large portions of continents. Also, the continents have travelled from the South Pole area to the positions we know now. [2] In the most recent Ice Age, 18,000 years ago, the ice caps were from the Pole North to over Canada, and also over Scandinavia, down to halfway Holland. [3] Changes in the climate have been of all times. There are some changes we can predict, others not.

 

part 1: The clockwork of the Earth and Sun

The Earth is part of exciting clockwork with several movements that influence the radiation. The distance between the Earth and the Sun varies and the axes of the Earth moves. In 1938, a Serbian astronomer, Milutin Milankovitch, published an explanation.

Earth's rotation around its axis

Earth rotation around axisThe Earth makes a complete turn on its axis in 24 hours. This causes the alternation of day and night and with it a daily warming and cooling.

Earth's orbit around the Sun

In one year the Earth completes its orbit around the Sun. Because of the inclined position of the axis of the Earth, the two hemispheres (Northern and Southern) take turns receiving the most direct rays of the Sun.

Earth orbit around the Sun

In countries that use the European division in four seasons, the year is divided in astronomical seasons by four points on the Earth’s orbit. These points, in turn, are fixed by the Sun’s apparent journey through the sky over the course of a year. When the Sun rises directly in the east and sets directly in the west, it marks the start of the spring (March) and the start of the autumn (September). At these points, everywhere on earth, day and night are of roughly equal length.

The beginning of the spring on the northern hemisphere is the beginning of the autumn on the southern hemisphere. Our antipodes do everything the other way around.

At the points of the orbit when the noonday Sun is as high in the sky as it ever gets, we have the start of the summer (Midsummer’s Day, by the old reckoning) and the longest day of the year on that hemisphere. At the points of the orbit when the noonday Sun is as low in the sky as it ever gets, we have the start of the winter (Midwinter’s Day, by the old reckoning) and the shortest day of the year on that hemisphere. 

On the northern hemisphere the astronomical seasons start:

Spring:    about 21 March
Summer: about 21 June
Autumn:  about 21 September
Winter:   about 21 December

In some countries, like Australia, the first day of these months is considered as the beginning of the new season. Many meteorologists use this same division. In most countries of the world, people don’t use these four seasons. Winter never comes to the tropics. In most countries, they set their seasons either by stages of vegetative growth or the onset and cessation of rains. Japanese have seven seasons. 

The starting points of the spring, summer, autumn and winter do not divide the year in four equal parts. This has the following cause. The orbit around the Sun is not a circle. It would have been one, if the Earth was the only planet around the Sun. But because of the attraction forces of, in particular, Jupiter and Saturn, the trajectory is not round, but elliptical. (In the drawings the elliptic shape has been greatly exaggerated!) In this ellipse the Sun is at one focus. (The other focus is empty.) [4] One half year the distance between the Earth and the Sun decreases all the time, the other half year it increases. These half years do not coincide with the seasons.

At the moment the Earth is closest to the Sun on January 3rd. This point on the orbit is called the perihelion (peri=close, helion=Sun). On July 4th the earth is farthest from the Sun. This point is called the aphelion.

In the year 2000, on January 3rd, the Earth was at 147,102,782 km from the Sun and on June 4th at 152,102,294 km (=3.4% more). [5]

Because of this difference the irradiance from the Sun is 6.7% more intense on December 3rd than on July 4th. (The intensity varies inversely with the square of the distance.) [6]

On the southern hemisphere it is summer, when the Earth comes closest to the Sun on January 3rd. That means extra heat, during the long summer days.

Because the Earth approaches the Sun during one half year and moves away from it the other half year, the speed of the Earth on the orbit is not constant. The speed increases when the Earth approaches the Sun and decreases when it moves away from it.

Kepler interval speed

According to astronomer Kepler: "The line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time." [7]

This means that on the part of the orbit, where the earth is closest to the Sun, the speed is highest. That is why on the northern hemisphere the period Autumn-Winter is a few days shorter than Spring-Summer.

The point at which the Earth is closest to the Sun is now on January 3rd. However, this point moves nearly imperceptibly. Each 58 years it is one day later. This is caused by two motions: the axis of the Earth wobbles and the orbit displaces itself around the Sun. Before we move on to these movements, let us take a look at the influence of the Moon.

The barycenter

The Earth’ trajectory around the Sun, mentioned above, is not a clean elliptic trajectory. This is caused by the Moon, that “circles” around the Earth (in 27.3 days). Earth and Moon form a kind of oneness on their yearly trajectory around the Sun. We say the Moon circles around the Earth. It is more precise to say, that both circle around a point at which they keep each other in equilibrium, the barycenter, their common point of gravity. This point is situated somewhere between the centre of the Earth and the centre of the Moon. If the Earth and the Moon would have had the same mass, then that point would have been half way. But because the mass of the Earth is 831/3 times bigger than that of the Moon, this point is much closer to the centre of the Earth, at 4671 km from it, that is to say 1707 km below the Earth’ surface. [8] This is an average. The distance Earth-Moon varies by 14% in the course of a month. [9] )

Barycenter

It is the barycenter of the Moon and Earth that follows the elliptic trajectory around the Sun. Because the barycenter is inside the Earth, the Earth will still always be on the orbit, but the bigger part of the Earth will move from one side to the other each 14 days, as a counter­balance of the Moon. At full moon, when Sun, Earth and Moon are approximately aligned, the centre of the Earth is about 4600 km on the inside of the orbit. At new moon, it is about 4600 km on the outside.

Earth' axis wobbles, orbit moves

Earth axis wobbles

The Earth’ axis wobbles. The extension of the axis forms a funnel in 25,800 years. At this moment the axis points to the Polestar, in 12,000 years to Vega. [10] Consequently, the points at which the North- and South Pole are at equal distance from the Sun (the start of spring and autumn) move along the ellipse. At the same time, the longest axis of the ellipse makes a 360o turn in 112,000 years, like the hand of a clock with the Sun as capstan.

axis od ellipse turns

The combination of these two motions makes, that the point on the orbit with the shortest distance to the Sun (now January 3rd) shifts to one day later each 58 years and makes a complete trip around the calendar in 23,000 years.

In the months before and after January 3rd, on the northern hemisphere we profit a little bit from the stronger intensity of the Sun’s irradiation. But, because this extra radiation is occurring during the short winter days and winter is also travelled through more quickly, this advantage does not counterbalance the disadvantage of the relatively long summers with less radiation. In total, during the year, on the northern hemisphere, we have less radiation. But, to counterbalance it, in 11,000 years our descendants will have extra hot summers and complain about it.

That is the situation they now have on the southern hemisphere. The summerly radiation there is more intense than the summerly radiation on the northern hemisphere. However, on the southern hemisphere there is less land. The temperature of the seawater rises much more slowly than the temperature of land. So, logically, on the whole, temperatures on the southern hemisphere rise less now than those on the northern hemisphere will in 11,000 years.

We could also express it otherwise: by the inclination of the Earth’ axis more water than land is turned to the Sun when the Earth is at its perihelion, at this side of the 23,000 years’ cycle.

Inclination of Earth' axis varies

Earth axis inclination changes

The inclination of the earth axis varies too. In cycles of 41,000 years, its position goes from 21.5o to 24.5o and back again. Today it is 23.5o and underway towards a steeper position. The steeper the position, the more radiation keeps centred around the equator over the course of the year.

 

Eccentricity of the orbit varies

ellipse_circleFinally, also the shape of the ellipse varies in 413,000 years from a near circle to ellipse and back again. The longest axis (the distance between perihelion and aphelion) remains the same. [11] At the moment when it reaches its most elliptical shape, the differences in radiation over the course of the years are the biggest. Then, on the point with the shortest distance there is 23% more radiation as on the point with the longest distance. (As mentioned earlier, this difference in radiation is 6.7% now.)

Because the longest distance doesn’t change, the orbit of the Earth, when it becomes more circular over the course of 206,500 years, becomes bigger. The cycle of a year doesn’t change. So it is the mean speed of the Earth that increases as the orbit becomes more circular. When the orbit is circular, there aren’t any differences in distance anymore that cause differences in radiation. The Earth’ speed on its orbit doesn’t vary and seasons are of equal length. [12]

Scientists can find back, in particular, the longer cycles, which appear by the combination of these motions, in the history of the Ice Ages. [13]

It is clear, that these motions have an important (long term) influence on the climate. According to professor Tyson, the Earth is now twenty-thousand years into a fifty-thousand year warming period.

Next: The activity of the Sun

Sources & references:

[1] http://www.dlr.de/en/desktopdefault.aspx/ tabid-5089/8554_read-18304

[2] http://www.scotese.com/precambr.htm & http://www.scotese.com/earth.htm

[3] http://www.scotese.com/lastice.htm

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Milankovitch_cycles

[5] http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/ link=/kids_space/earth_galore.html

[6] http://www.eoearth.org/article/ Solar_radiation

[7] http://www.rehon.nl/Rehon21.01.htm & http://www.astro-tom.com/technical_data/ elliptical_orbits.htm

[8] http://www.astronomycafe.net/qadir/q665.html

[9] http://home.insightbb.com/~lasweb/ lessons/moonorbit.htm

[10] A new way to see the stars, 1966, P. 124

[11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Milankovitch_cycles

[12] http://earth.usc.edu/geol150/ variability/orbitalchanges.html

        http://www.nasa.gov/audience/ forstudents/5-8/ features/orbit_feature_5-8.html

        http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/education/ reference/orbits/orbit1.html

        http://www.astro-tom.com/ technical_data/ elliptical_orbits.htm

        http://davem2.cotf.edu/ete/ modules/carbon/ efculprits3.html

[13] http://www.museum.state.il.us/ exhibits/ice_ages/ why_glaciations1.html

[*] With special thanks to climatologist Professor Patrick Tyson, who has taken the time to explain all the key issues to me.

This study contains 3 parts:

part 1: The clockwork of the Earth and Sun

part 2: The activity of the Sun

part 3: CO2 scare, claims and fraud...

April 2012

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